Fandom

Outlander Wiki

Literary References

466pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Comments3 Share

Literary references are made throughout the Outlander Series, from well-known works to obscure poetry and prayer. Song lyrics are included when the focus is on the words, rather than the music.


Outlander NovelsEdit

OutlanderEdit

Chapter Source Reference
1 Bible Joshua 6:26[1]
Frank quotes the verse while explaining to Claire the practice of burying a sacrifice under a new foundation: "He shall lay the foundations thereof in his firstborn and in his youngest son shall he set up the gates of it."
Genesis 19:26[2]
Claire likens herself to Lot's wife while Frank hugs her, trying to make amends.
William Shakespeare The Merchant of Venice, Act IV, scene 1 (ca. 1600)[3]
Claire quotes the line as she forgives Frank for his accusation: "The quality of mercy is not strain'd, / It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven..."
2 Cameron Unknown title
Reverend Wakefield goes to check in "Cameron" to verify if the Duke of Sandringham was a Jacobite.
Donald Donn / William Mackay "Tomorrow I shall be on a hill, without a head" (poem)[4]
Frank recites a few lines of Donald Donn's poetry to Claire: "Tomorrow I shall be on a hill, without a head. / Have you no compassion on my sorrowful maiden, / My Mary, the fair and tender-eyed?"[5][6]
3 Bible 1 Corinthians 14:34[7]
A man in the MacKenzie party starts to recite the verse to admonish Claire for her vulgar language: "Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak."
6 Robert Burns (attributed) "Selkirk Grace"[8]
Hamish says grace: "Some hae meat that canna eat, / And some could eat that want it; / We hae meat, and we can eat, / And so may God be thankit."
7 William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act III, scene 4, line 57 (ca. 1599)[9]
Claire thinks of the line when she meets Auld Alec, who has one eye: "An eye like Mars, to threaten and command ..."
8 Nursery rhyme Old King Cole (1708)
Claire recites a few lines of the poem while waiting for Gwyllyn the Bard to begin playing: "Oh, he called for his pipe, and he called for his bowl, and he called for his fiddlers three."
15 Bible Genesis 27:11[10]
Claire notes the difference between Jamie's hairy hands and Frank's smooth ones: "For Jacob's skin was smooth, while his brother Esau was a hairy man."[11]
Geoffrey Chaucer The Wife of Bath's Tale from The Canterbury Tales
(published 1478)
Claire feels like the Wife of Bath while explaining the finer points of lovemaking to Jamie in their marriage bed.
16 Alexander Carmichael (editor) (poem fragment)[12]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. II (1900)
Jamie recites a poem from the Isles to Claire: "Thou daughter of the kingdom of the regions of the light, / On the night that thy wedding is on us..."
20 Catullus / trans. Richard Crashaw Catullus 5 (ca. 84 – 54 BC)[13]
Jamie translates the bit of poetry, which Hugh Munro had written on a piece of paper and wrapped around a chunk of amber: "Da mi basia mille..."
22 Bible 1 Corinthians 7:9[14]
Jamie recalls the verse to Claire as he explains his involvement with Laoghaire: "...for it is better to marry than to burn."
23 William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act I, scene 5, line 20 (ca. 1599)[15]
Claire wakens suddenly, blurting "Horrocks!", which startles Jamie out of sleep and at the ready with his dirk. Claire remarks that he looks like a "fretful porpentine".
24 MacBeth, Act IV, scene 1, line 44 (ca. 1606)[16]
Chapter title: By the Pricking of My Thumbs
25 Bible Colossians 3:12[17]
Geilie quotes the passage when talking to Claire in the thieves' hole about Colum MacKenzie: "Bowels of mercy and compassion, is it?"[18]
Habakkuk 3:5[19]
Father Bain denounces Claire during the witch trial, equipped with inflammatory verse: "Before him went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at his feet."
Proverbs 2:16-18[20]
Father Bain continues his denunciation: "To deliver thee from the strange woman, even from the stranger which flattereth with her words... For her house inclineth unto death, and her paths unto the dead."
Exodus 22:18[21]
Father Bain makes his closing argument: "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live."
Matter of Britain Arthurian legend
Claire calls the stones on Craigh na Dun "Merlin's stones" to emphasize the fantastical nature of her very real situation.
26 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902)
Claire's first impression of a large dog that greets her and Jamie at Lallybroch calls to mind that tale of a legendary hellish hound.
Homer Odyssey (8th century BC)
Claire makes a remark about Odysseus being recognized by his dog upon returning from the Trojan War. After greeting his own dogs, Jamie continues, quoting in Greek, "In which Odysseus returns to his home, disguised as a beggar..." and makes a comment about dealing with Penelope and her suitors.
Norman Macleod Caraid nan Gaidheal = The friend of the Gael : a choice selection of Gaelic writings
Jamie quotes a few lines of poetry to Claire about the legendary Fingal and his dogs: "Thus Fingal chose his hounds: / Eye like sloe, ear like leaf, / Chest like horse, hough like sickle / And the tail joint far from the head."[22] It is also notable that Jamie's dog, Bran, is named for the legendary Fingal's hound, who is considered a hero in his own right.
38 Herodotus Various Works
Father Anselm uses the library at the Abbey of Ste. Anne de Beaupré to work on translating the works of Herodotus.[23]
Tacitus Unidentified Book
Jamie reads a book by Tacitus while at the Abbey of Ste. Anne de Beaupré.
39 Bible 1 Samuel 5:9[24]
Claire peruses the Bible in search of guidance: "...and he smote them with emerods, and they were very sore."
Psalms 22:6, 22:14, 22:19-20[25]
Claire peruses the Bible in search of guidance: "But I am a worm, and no man... I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels... But be not thou far from me, O Lord: O my strength, haste thee to help me. Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog."
Job 14:22,[26] 33:19-25[27]
Claire chooses to consult the Book of Job, Jamie's favorite: "But his flesh upon him shall have pain, and his soul within him shall mourn... He is chastened also with pain upon his bed, and the multitude of his bones with strong pain... His flesh is consumed away, that it cannot be seen; and his bones that were not seen stick out. Yea, his soul draweth near unto the grave, and his life to the destroyers. If there be a messenger with him, an interpreter, one among a thousand, to shew unto man his uprightness: Then he is gracious unto him, and saith, Deliver him from going down to the pit: I have found a ransom. His flesh shall be fresher than a child's: he shall return to the days of his youth."

Dragonfly in AmberEdit

Chapter Source Reference
Part I Bible 1 Corinthians 13:12[28]
Title of Part I, Through a Looking Glass, Darkly: "For now we see through a glass, darkly ..."
Lewis Carroll Through the Looking-Glass (1871)
Title of Part I, Through a Looking Glass, Darkly
6 Bible Psalm 146:3[29]
Jamie explains his caution to Claire, regarding Charles Stuart and the French court: "Put not your trust in princes..."
8 John Donne Devotions upon Emergent Occasions (1624)[30]
Claire observes the departure of the Victomtesse de Rambeau in her carriage, and thinks of the slogan, À la lanterne!, which would become popular during the French Revolution. Claire paraphrases a quotation to Master Raymond, substituting the word "tumbril" for "bell": "... and therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee."[31]
10 Samuel Pepys His diary (1660-1669)
Claire dreams of Frank, who mentions Pepys while explaining the rarity of a historical resource that faithfully describes the mundane as well as the noteworthy.
12 W. S. Gilbert Harlequin Cock-Robin and Jenny Wren (1867)[32]
Claire compares the sudden appearance of a nun, summoned by Mother Hildegarde's clap of the hands, to Cock-Robin, the title figure of a pantomime who was magically turned from a dead bird into a "little man".
William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act I, scene 5, lines 166-167 (ca. 1599)[33]
Claire paraphrases the lines to Sister Angelique at L'Hôpital des Anges: "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy."
19 Romeo and Juliet (1597)
Claire observes that Alexander Randall and Mary Hawkins, laying unconscious beside each other, look like Romeo and Juliet "laid out in the public square as a reproach to their relatives".
23 Robert Burns "To a Mouse, on Turning Her Up in Her Nest with the Plough" (1785)
Chapter title: The Best-Laid Plans of Mice and Men...[34]
24 Alfred, Lord Tennyson Lady Clara Vere de Vere (1842)
Claire quotes the poem to Jamie: "Kind hearts are more than coronets."
Robert Burns "The Author’s Earnest Cry and Prayer" (1786)
Claire quotes the line to Jamie: "Freedom an’ whisky gang thegither!"
27 St. Augustine Confessions (397-400)
When the Comte St. Germain and Master Raymond stand before King Louis XV accused of sorcery, Louis notes that they have both practiced astrology, but that this is not a crime as even St. Augustine was known to have made inquiries into the mysteries of astrology. Claire recalls that St. Augustine had dismissed astrology as a load of rubbish and she doubts that Louis has read Augustine's Confessions.
28 Bible Catholic liturgy / Genesis 3:19[35]
Claire describes Faith to Jamie, and thinks of the lines: "Remember, man, that thou are dust, and unto dust thou shalt return." This is recited on Ash Wednesday as part of the Catholic liturgy, and originates from Genesis 3:19.
31 Robert Louis Stevenson "Requiem" from Underwoods (1887)[36]
Claire quotes lines to Jamie: "Home is the sailor, home from the sea, / And the hunter home from the hill."
Sir Walter O'Bannion Reilly A Scientific Treatise on Methods of Farming
This is the book Ian sends away for when Claire tells them to plant potatoes.
34 James M. Cain The Postman Always Rings Twice (1934)
Chapter title
Molière Various works
Claire notes that the Lallybroch women waulk their wool "to the rhythms of Molière and Piron."
Alexis Piron Various works
Claire notes that the Lallybroch women waulk their wool "to the rhythms of Molière and Piron."
36 Miguel de Cervantes Don Quixote (1605)
Claire asks Jamie if Cervantes has been born yet, and whether he is familiar with the term "quixotic".
Sir Walter Scott Marmion, Canto VI, XXX (1808)[37]
Jamie, having learned the poem from Claire at some previous time, begins to quote the lines when she demands impatiently for him to continue his telling of the battle: "When pain and anguish wring the brow, / A ministering angel thou!"
Charles Dickens A Child's History of England (1852-1854)
Claire tries to recall what little she can remember reading about Scottish history as a child in her tattered brown copy of this book. Charles Dickens wrote a three volume series of books with this name. Dickens' books only dealt with English history up to 1689, but had one final chapter summarizing events between 1689 and 1853 when the book was written. It seems likely that Claire's book was the Dickens book as Claire notes that it had only a two-page section on the Jacobite Rising.
38 Bible Exodus 34:7,[38] Jeremiah 11:19[39]
Claire thinks of the passages, reflecting on her choices that have possibly written Frank Randall out of existence: "For the sins of the fathers shall be visited on the children... and thou shalt destroy him, root and branch, so that his name shall no more be known among the tribes of Israel."
42 L. Frank Baum The Oz Books
(1900-1920 by Baum; later additional volumes by other authors)
Claire likens Murtagh to the Gnome King.
45 Andrew Marvell "To His Coy Mistress" (ca. 1650s)
With Alexander Randall dead, and Mary Hawkins alone on her wedding night, Claire thinks of the lines as a contrast to herself and Jamie, who remain alive and together: "The grave's a fine and private place, / But none, I think, do there embrace."
46 Alexander Carmichael (editor) "An Cath Nach Tainig (The Battle to Come)"[40]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
Claire starts to say the blessing to Jamie before they hear English soldiers approaching the house, on the eve of the Battle of Culloden: "Jesus, Thou Son of Mary, I call on Thy name..."
49 Bible John 20:29[41]
Roger thinks of the verse after the harrowing experience of watching Gillian Edgars go through the cleft stone on Craigh na Dun: "Blessed are those who have not seen, and yet have believed."

VoyagerEdit

Chapter Source Reference
Part I A. E. Housman "Hell's Gate" from Last Poems (1922)[42]
Title of Part I: Battle, and the Loves of Men
2 Eric Linklater The Prince in the Heather (1965)
Roger shows Claire the passage about a Fraser of the Master of Lovat's regiment who escaped slaughter out of a group of eighteen Jacobite officers.
3 Benjamin Spock The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946)
Claire and Frank refer to Dr. Spock when Brianna rolls over for the first time.
4 Bible / Pseudepigrapha Genesis 3[43] / Life of Adam and Eve (Apocalypse of Moses)[44]
Jamie explains to Fergus, Rabbie, and Young Jamie than one of the plagues of Adam after the Fall was facial hair, and thus man is cursed with shaving.[45]
5 Bible 1 Timothy 2:14-15[46]
Mrs. Kirby reads the passage aloud while Jenny's screams can be heard upstairs: "And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. Notwithstanding, she shall be saved in childbearing, if she continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety."
John 11[47]
Jamie, hidden in the wardrobe during a close encounter with English soldiers, observes that before Mrs. Innes can ask a question, Jenny "shot up from the bedclothes like Lazarus."
Mrs. McLintock Mrs. McLintock's receipts for cookery and pastry-work (1736)
Jenny consults her cookbook while making hare pie.
6 Bible Romans 5:9[48]
Chapter title: Being Now Justified by His Blood
Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe (1719)
Jamie is reading the novel in the cave when he hears the sound of soldiers: "This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have drowned my cave..."
Part III John Milton Paradise Lost, Book IV, line 970 (1667)[49]
Title of Part III: When I Am Thy Captive
7 Woodhill Patriots[50]
This is a book that Frank owns, being a series of profiles of the American Founding Fathers. Frank compares Claire's passion for medicine to the passion the Founding Fathers had, and warns Claire that they paid a price for that passion.
8 Tobias Smollett The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748)
Jamie thinks about the stories he would tell the men in prison with him at Ardsmuir.
Henry Fielding The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749)
Jamie thinks about the stories he would tell the men in prison with him at Ardsmuir.
Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe (1719)
Jamie thinks about the stories he would tell the men in prison with him at Ardsmuir, of which Robinson Crusoe is their favorite.
10 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse (1761)
Lord John is surprised to find that Jamie enjoys French novels.[51]
Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe (1719)
Lord John asks Jamie if he is familiar with the novel.
11 Samuel Richardson Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded (1740)
Jamie and Lord John discuss the length of the novel.
12 Bible Acts 2[52]
Jamie thinks of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles, and its illustration in his mother's Bible.
14 Isaiah 14:12[53]
Lord John paraphrases the quotation to himself while looking at Jamie: "O Lucifer, thou son of the morning..."
15 John Cleland Fanny Hill (1748)
Jamie is reading the novel when he is summoned to ready the coach to travel to Ellesmere.
21 Robert Burns "The Author’s Earnest Cry and Prayer" (1786)
Roger and Brianna show Claire an article they believe to have been written by Jamie: "Freedom an’ whisky gang thegither!"
Part V Thomas Wolfe You Can't Go Home Again (1940)
Title of Part V
22 Joseph Jacobs "The Sprightly Tailor" from Celtic Fairy Tales (1892)[54][55]
Roger quotes the story to Claire, explaining that he can never sleep on All Hallows' Eve because of the scary stories his father told him growing up: "See'st thou this great gray head, with jaws which have no meat?"
26 Bible Luke 6:37[56]
Jamie quotes the passage in reproach to Ian Murray's insinuations about his character: "Judge not, and ye shall not be judged."
27 Alexander Carmichael (editor) "Fois Anama (Soul Peace)"[57]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
Jamie tells Ian to say this prayer after taking a life.
"An Treoraich Anama (The Soul Leading)"[58]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
A shorter prayer for when time is short, as in battle.
28 John Milton Paradise Lost (1667)
Claire asks Jamie if it was the archangel Michael who drove Adam and Eve out of the Garden of Eden.
29 Sir Walter Scott Marmion, Canto VI, XVII (1808)[59]
Claire quotes the lines to Jamie while they wait for Ian to finish going to confession: "Oh, what a tangled web we weave, when first we practice to deceive!"
32 Robert Frost "The Death of the Hired Man" (1914)[60]
Claire says the quote to Young Ian as reassurance as they approach Lallybroch: "Home is the place where, when you have to go there, they have to take you in."
Bible Parable of the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32)[61]
Jamie mentions the passage as his own reassurance to Ian. Also used in the chapter title.
33 Tacitus Agricola (ca. 98)[62]
Claire recalls the line as something that a contemporary of the Duke of Cumberland ascribed to the Duke's achievement in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745: "He created a desert and called it peace."
William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act II, scene 2, lines 378-379 (ca. 1599)[63]
Jamie refers to the line to assure Claire he knows the difference between naked women and food: "I am but mad north-north-west: when the wind is / southerly I know a hawk from a handsaw."
37 Romeo and Juliet, Act II, scene 2, line 43 (1597)[64]
Chapter title: What's in A Name
38 John Arbuthnot Law is a Bottomless Pit (1712)[65]
Ned Gowan refers to the title, having finished laying out the settlement between Jamie and Laoghaire.
Emily Post Etiquette in Society, in Business, in Politics, and at Home (1922)
When Claire is introduced to Hobart MacKenzie she wonders what Emily Post would recommend in such a situation.
39 Thomas Wolfe Look Homeward, Angel (1929)
Chapter title: Lost, and by the Wind Grieved
40 Robert Louis Stevenson "Dead Man's Chest" from Treasure Island (1883)
Claire quotes the fictional song as she and Jamie discuss the possible origins of the silkies' treasure: "Fifteen men on the dead man's chest— ...Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!"
41 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow "The Building of a Ship" from The Seaside and the Fireside (1850)[66]
Claire quotes the lines when they set sail from Scotland to rescue Young Ian: "And see! She stirs! / She starts,—she moves,—she seems to feel / The thrill of life along her keel, ..."
42 A. E. Housman "The rainy Pleiads wester" from More Poems (1936)[67]
Claire quotes the lines to Jamie while they look at the moon aboard the Artemis: "The rainy Pleiads wester / Orion plunges prone, / And midnight strikes and hastens / And I lie down alone."
"Because I liked you" from More Poems (1936)[68]
Claire thinks of another Housman poem while thinking of Jamie's gravestone in Scotland in the 20th century: "Halt by the headstone naming / The heart no longer stirred, / And say the lad that loved you / Was one that kept his word."
44 Charles Perrault "Le Petit Chaperon rouge" (Little Red Riding Hood) from Histoires ou contes du temps passé (1697)
Jamie watches the sharks attack the cask of spoiled horse meat thrown overboard from the Artemis: "Why, grandmother dear, what big teeth ye have!"
50 Samuel Taylor Coleridge The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798)
Claire thinks of the lines when she finds herself washed up on an island covered in mangroves, and inhabited by strange animals: "Water, water, every where, Nor any drop to drink."
52 Bible Song of Solomon 2:5-6[69]
Claire paraphrases the passage to Jamie, who is describing his plan for the next time they have sufficient space and time to be alone together: "My beloved's arm is under me, and his hand behind my head. Comfort me with apples, and stay me with flagons, for I am sick of love."
Lewis Carroll The Hunting of the Snark (1874)
As Fergus and Marsali complete their nuptials, Claire quotes the line to Jamie and kisses him: "What I tell you three times is true."
58 Edgar Allan Poe "The Masque of the Red Death"
Chapter title
A. E. Housman "Oh Who Is That Young Sinner" from Additional Poems (1937)[70][71]
Claire recites the poem to Jamie, who is adding the final touches to his disguise for the governor's ball.[72]
60 Alexander Carmichael (editor) "Am Beannachadh Bais (The Death Blessing)"[73]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
Geillis tells Jamie and Claire the story of her escape from Castle Leoch: "God, omit not this woman from thy covenant..."

Drums of AutumnEdit

Chapter Source Reference
7 Bible Job 1:13-22[74]
Claire thinks of the Book of Job as an analogy to Jamie's losses since the Rising, and William Tryon's offer to have it all back.
8 Petronius (attributed)
Ben Jonson (translation)
"Fragmentum Petron. Arbitr." Under-woods. Consisting of Divers Poems (1640)[75]
Jamie recites the lines in Latin to Claire, after his advances are stymied by the presence of Ian and their other companions: "Foeda est in coitu, & brevis voluptas, / Et taedet Veneris statim per actae." (Doing, a filthy pleasure is, and short ; / And done, we straight repent us of the sport.)
Homer Odyssey (8th century BC)
Jamie recites passages in Ancient Greek, attempting to tutor Ian in Greek and Latin.
Plautus Amphitryon, lines 648-653 (ca. 205–184 BC)[76]
Jamie prompts Ian for the lines in Latin, with less than favorable results.[77]
Virgil Aeneid, line 1 (ca. 29–19 BC)[78]
Claire Fraser admits that the line is all she remembers of her Latin instruction: "Arma virumque cano."
John O'Keeffe The Agreeable Surprise (1781)[79]
Jamie recites a poem, to Claire and Ian's amusement: "Amo, amas, I love a lass..."[80]
9 Bible Proverbs 31:10[81]
Stephen Bonnet paraphrases the passage: "A virtuous woman is prized above rubies; her price is greater than pearls."
Matthew 6:34[82]
Claire quotes the passage: "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof."
10 William Congreve The Mourning Bride, Act III, scene 2, and Act I, scene 1 (1697)[83]
Claire chimes in with the quote during the discussion about Lieutenant Wolff's unsuccessful marriage proposal to Jocasta: "Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned."
12 Bible Song of Solomon 7:4[84]
Phillip Wylie quotes the beginning of the line to Claire, who finishes it: "Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; thine eyes like the fishpools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bathrabbim: thy nose is as the tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus."
13 Aristophanes The Frogs (405 BC)
Jamie quotes the frogs' refrain to Claire: "Brek-ek-ek-ex, co-ax, co-ax. Brek-ek-ek-ex, co-ax!"
Bible Ruth 1:16-17[85]
Claire quotes the lines to Jamie: "Whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge: thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God: Where thou diest, will I die, and there will I be buried."
Matthew 5:7[86]
Jamie quotes the line to Claire in trying to explain why he didn't let Claire attend to a dying man: "Blessed are the merciful, for they shall find mercy."
14 Bible Luke 3:7[87]
Chapter title: Flee from Wrath to Come
Traditional "The Fause Bride (I Loved a Lass)"[88][89]
Claire thinks of the lines while she and Jamie, along with Ian, John Quincy Myers, and Pollyanne, make their way into the mountains: "How many strawberries grow in the salt sea; how many ships sail in the forest?"
15 Bible Matthew 6:30[90], Job 5:7[91], Psalm 103:15-16[92]
Claire paraphrases a few different verses: "Man is like the grass that withers and is thrown into the fire... He is like the sparks that fly upward... and his place will know him no more."
Psalm 103:15-16[92], Matthew 6:30[90], 1 Peter 1:24-25[93]
Jamie likewise paraphrases the sentiments of multiple verses: "Man is like the grass of the field: today it blooms; tomorrow it withers and is cast into the oven." These, as well as other verses, lend meaning to their overall conversation – that life on Earth is fleeting, but love (i.e. the word of God) endures forever.
18 Traditional "Je t'aime un peu, beaucoup, passionnément, pas du tout" (He loves me... he loves me not)
Roger gives Brianna a bracelet inscribed with the French version of the game.
19 Alexander Carmichael (editor) "Teisreadh Taighe (House Protecting)"[94]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
Jamie blesses the hearth: "God, bless the world and all that is therein..."
Alexander Carmichael (collector)
James Carmichael Watson (editor)
"An Saodachadh (The Driving)"[95]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. IV (1941)
Duncan performs a blessing to protect the livestock: "The safeguard of Fionn mac Cumhall be yours..."
20 Marcus Aurelius Meditations, Book III, passage 16 (170 to 180 AD)[96]
Jamie recites the translation aloud while he and Ian work on building the cabin: "Body, soul, and mind: the body for sensation, the soul for the springs of action, the mind for principles..."
21 Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol (1843)
Claire tells the story to Jamie, trying to keep him awake until morning. She reflects on her tradition with Frank, and how they would read the story to Brianna every Christmas.
22 Virgil / Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations Aeneid, Book IV, line 23 (ca. 29–19 BC)[97][98]
Chapter title: Spark of an Ancient Flame
23 T. S. Eliot "Whispers of Immortality" from Poems (1919)[99]
Chapter title: The Skull Beneath the Skin
William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act V, Scene 1, lines 163-164 (ca. 1599)[100]
Claire quotes the line when she discovers a human skull buried beneath a tree, and ponders how long ago the person may have died: "How long will a man lie i' the earth ere he / rot?"
John Keats "Written in Disgust of Vulgar Superstition" (1816)[101]
Claire recites the poem to the skull.
"Ode on a Grecian Urn" (1820)[102]
Claire quotes the line to the skull: "Forever wilt thou love, and she be fair!"
Percy Bysshe Shelley "Ode to the West Wind" from Prometheus Unbound (1820)[103]
Claire recites the ode to the skull.[104]
Prometheus Unbound, Act I, line 262 (1820)[105]
Claire thinks of the line while she watches the light draw closer: "Fiend, I defy thee! with a calm, fixed mind."
25 Epicharmus Thearoi, "Visitors to Delphi"[106][107][108]
Lord John and Jamie make reference to the Greek comic writer, having seen William after his excursion into the privy.
Pindar Olympian 1: For Hieron of Syracuse Single Horse Race 476 B. C.[109]
Claire offers up her own epigram, handing a jar of soap to William: "Water is best."
26 Thomas Aquinas Tantum Ergo from Pange Lingua Gloriosi Corporis Mysterium (c. 1264)
Claire sings to the dying Indian man in the corncrib. (See also: Music)
27 Richard Brautigan Trout Fishing in America (1967)
Chapter title: Trout Fishing in America
37 Herman Melville Moby-Dick (1851)
Roger thinks about Stephen Bonnet's reputation, and reflects that he would have sailed with Captain Ahab, so desperate was he to follow Brianna to North Carolina.
38 William Whiting "Eternal Father, Strong to Save" (1860)
Chapter title: For Those in Peril on the Sea
Traditional / John Gregorson Campbell Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland: Collected Entirely from Oral Sources (1900)[110]
Roger watches a small girl, Isobeàil, expend pent-up energy on deck, chanting tunelessly: "Seven herrings are a salmon's fill, / Seven salmon are a seal's fill, / Seven seals are a whale's fill, And seven whales the fill of a Cirein Croin!"[111]
39 Robert Monro "Between the devil and the deep blue sea"[112][113]
Roger considers Bonnet's challenge, and the line comes to him: "And here Roger stood quite literally between the devil and the deep blue sea..."
40 South Asian parable / John Godfrey Saxe[114] Blind men and an elephant
Brianna references the story while she and Roger undress to have sex for the first time: "No, the beast is like a wall... no, the beast is like a rope, like a snake..."
Terry Garrity, John Garrity, and Len Forman The Sensuous Man (1971)
Brianna tells Roger about what she read in a book about pleasing a male partner.
43 William Butler Yeats "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" from The Countess Kathleen and Various Legends and Lyrics (1892)
Brianna recalls the poem to Jamie, that Frank would quote it when Claire was in her garden.[115]
48 Bible Leviticus 18:7[116]
Brianna thinks of the passage when she asks Jamie about Jack Randall: "Thou shalt not uncover thy father's nakedness."
The Rymour Club (collector) Miscellanea of the Rymour Club, Edinburgh. Vol. I: 1906-11, "There was a man i Muir o Skene..."
Jamie demonstrates forcibly to Brianna that she could not have fought off her rapist, and taunts her by reciting a nursery rhyme: "There was a man in Muir of Skene, He had dirks and I had none; But I fell on him with my thumbs, And wot you how, I dirkit him, dirkit him, dirkit him?"[117]
Catechism of the Catholic Church Lord's Prayer
The words come to Jamie as he seeks the ability to forgive Jack Randall: "Forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us, and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil."
Bible Romans 12:19[118]
Jamie thinks of the verse while he considers his role in the aftermath of Brianna's rape: "Vengeance is mine, sayeth the Lord."
51 Genesis 2:24[119]
Roger thinks of the verse while he contemplates his way forward, and role what Brianna might play in his decision: "And for this reason, a woman shall leave her parents, and cleave to her husband."[120]
59 Marcus Aurelius Meditations (170 to 180 AD)
Lord John is reading the book in Jocasta Cameron's library when Brianna invites him to walk outside with her.
62 Timothy Fuller Three Thirds of a Ghost (1941)
Chapter title

The Fiery CrossEdit

Chapter Source Reference
1 Horace Ars Poetica ("The Art of Poetry") (ca. 19 BC)
Claire uses the term in medias res, first used by the Roman poet in the first century BC.
Aristotle History of Animals (4th century BC)
Claire says she doesn't care for Aristotle, noting that he ranked women "somewhere below worms" in his scala naturae.
Proverb "Happy is the bride that the sun shines on; happy is the corpse that the rain rains on."[121][122]
Jamie says the proverb to Claire, in light of the overcast sky: "Happy the bride the sun shines on; happy the corpse the rain falls on."
4 Bible Matthew 19:5[123]
Roger thinks of the verse while considering what to get for Brianna as a wedding gift: "For this reason shall a woman leave her father's house, and cleave unto her husband, and the two shall be one flesh."[124]
12 Luke 6:19[125]
Jamie quotes the verse to Claire, who has been tending to the sick and wounded all morning: "And the whole multitude sought to touch him: for there went virtue out of him, and healed them all."
Genesis 18:11[126]
Jamie refers to Sarah, who bore a child in old age, while talking to Claire.
13 Proverb "A' are gude lasses, but where do the ill wives come frae?"[127][128]
Jamie quotes the proverb to Roger: "All are gude lasses, but where do the ill wives come frae?"
16 Alexander Carmichael (editor) (poem fragment)[12]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. II (1900)
Roger sings for Brianna on their wedding night: "On the night that our wedding is on us, I will come leaping to thee with gifts..."
17 Bible Matthew 19:6,[129] Mark 10:8-9[130]
Jamie, with thoughts on how strongly Claire's mere touch affects him, reassures himself of the rightness of it with support from the Bible: "Thou shalt be one flesh, and what God has joined together, let no man put asunder."
18 Alexander Carmichael (collector)
James Carmichael Watson (editor)
"Beannachdan (Blessings)"[131]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. III (1940)
Jamie has a sudden memory of his mother, and says a brief prayer: "May God make safe to me each step..."
21 William Shakespeare Julius Caesar, Act III, scene 1, line 77[132]
Roger reads the line from the eye chart that Claire has devised to test his vision: "Et tu, Brute?"
A Midsummer Night's Dream, Act IV, scene 2, lines 42-43[133]
Roger reads another line from the eye chart: "Eat no onions / nor garlic, for we are to utter sweet breath"
25 Alexander Carmichael (collector)
James Carmichael Watson (editor)
"Beannachadh Tàimh (Rest Benediction)"[134]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. III (1940)
Jamie and Claire pray in bed the night before leaving with the militia: "And bless, O bless to me the angeling of my rest."
27 Bible Proverbs 27:19[135]
Claire thinks of the line, understanding why Jamie decided to help Josiah and Keziah Beardsley: "As in water face answereth to face, so the heart of man to man."
Dante Alighieri Inferno from Divine Comedy (1308-1320)
Claire notes that Mrs. Beardsley refers to her husband's home as though it were the fifth circle of hell.[136]
Dorothy L. Sayers / Alexandre Dumas Unnatural Death (1927)[137] / The Three Musketeers (1844)[138]
Jamie recalls to Claire a story that Brianna had told him: "Let pass the justice of God."
31 Robert Frost "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" (1922)[139]
Claire quotes the poem as she considers what may have happened to Fanny Beardsley, and what to do next about the child: "And miles to go before I sleep."
36 Julian of Norwich Revelations of Divine Love (1395)[140]
Claire quotes the lines to Adso: "All shall be well, and all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well."
37 Tobias Smollett The Expedition of Humphry Clinker (1771)
Lord John sends a copy of the book to Jamie.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Canon of Sherlock Holmes (1887–1927)
Brianna refers to Jamie and Lord John as Sherlock and Watson, respectively, when talking to Claire about Jamie's search for Stephen Bonnet.
38 Julius Caesar Caesar's Commentaries (58–48 BC)[141]
Roger eyes the Fraser's Ridge library in Jamie's study.
Marcus Aurelius Meditations (170 to 180 AD)
Part of the Fraser's Ridge library.
John Brickell The Natural History of North-Carolina (1737)[142]
Part of the Fraser's Ridge library.
Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe (1719)
Part of the Fraser's Ridge library.
Henry Fielding The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749)
Part of the Fraser's Ridge library.
Tobias Smollett The Adventures of Roderick Random (1748)
Part of the Fraser's Ridge library.
Samuel Richardson Pamela; or, Virtue Rewarded (1740)
Part of the Fraser's Ridge library.
Miguel de Cervantes Don Quixote (1605)
Part of the Fraser's Ridge library.
Samuel Johnson A Dictionary of the English Language (1755)
Part of the Fraser's Ridge library.
William Shakespeare The Merchant of Venice, Act II, scene 2, lines 76-77 (1598)[143]
Roger carelessly quotes the play, which itself reverses an old proverb: "It is a wise father that knows his own child."
Part V Bible 1 Corinthians 7:9[14]
Section title: Tis Better to Marry Than Burn
42 Alexander Carmichael (collector)
James Carmichael Watson (editor)
"Dùrachd (Good Wish)"[144]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. III (1940)
Jocasta says the deasil charm to protect Jemmy from the fairies, as Brianna listens: "Wisdom of serpent be thine, wisdom of raven be thine, wisdom of valiant eagle..."
46 Bible Proverbs 16:18[145]
Claire, trying to dissuade Jamie from rising to Phillip Wylie's challenge, cites "the one about pride going before a fall."
53 Christopher Marlowe The Jew of Malta (1590)[146]
Claire makes an oblique mental reference to the work: "But that was long ago, and in another country... And besides..."
55 Agatha Christie Miss Marple (character)
Brianna addresses Claire as "Miss Marple" while the latter proceeds to lay out what is known about Betty's murder.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Canon of Sherlock Holmes (1887–1927)
Brianna calls Roger "Inspector Lestrade" after he makes his own deductions about the murder.
62 Bible Matthew 5:9[147]
Roger thinks of the verse, after his attempt to persuade the Regulators to disperse: "Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God."
63 Dr. Seuss Green Eggs and Ham (1960)
Claire refers to the children's book, in light of William Tryon's insistence that he could not, would not, deal with a mob: "Could you, would you, in a box? Could you, would you, with a fox?"
74 Bible Mark 6:25-27[148], Matthew 14:8-11[149]
At Mrs. Sherston's request, Brianna paints her as Salome. Bree chooses to paint the severed head of John the Baptist with a strong resemblance to Governor Tryon.
78 Michel de Montaigne Essays (1580)
Brianna browses the new books in Jamie's study.
Daniel Defoe Moll Flanders (1722)
Brianna browses the new books in Jamie's study.
Benjamin Franklin The Means and Manner of Obtaining Virtue
Brianna browses the new books in Jamie's study.
William Shakespeare MacBeth, Act IV, scene 1, lines 14-15 (ca. 1606)[150]
Claire quotes the lines while examining the contents of the amulet pouch that Nayawenne gave to her: "Eye of newt and toe of frog, / Wool of bat and tongue of dog..."
84 Mark Twain Mark Twain's Letters, Volume 2 (1917)[151]
Claire says the quote to Jamie after they have survived the lightning strike: "Thunder is good, thunder is impressive; but it is lightning that does the work."
86 Christopher Marlowe The Jew of Malta (1590)[146]
Roger starts to think of the quote, put in mind of his upbringing as the preacher's lad while steeling himself to ask Jamie to teach him how to fight: "But that was in another country..."
Alexander Pope An Essay on Criticism (1711)
Roger quotes two lines to Jamie, who recites the next two: "A little learning is a dangerous thing; / Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring: / There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, / And drinking largely sobers us again."
97 Walter Scott "Bonnie Dundee" (1825)
Claire refers to the poem, along with other bits of verse and song, to explain to Roger the average Scotsman's bloody-mindedness.[152]
100 Robert Burns "To a Mouse, on Turning Her Up in Her Nest with the Plough" (1785)
Claire quotes the line to Jamie while they dicuss the plan regarding Stephen Bonnet: "The best laid plans of mice and men gang aft agley."[34]
Bible Psalm 107:23-30[153]
Roger recites the lines to distract Jemmy, as well as the rest of the family: "They that go down to the sea in ships..."
103 Romans 12:19[118]
Claire thinks of the verse, contrasting its sentiment with the attitude of male Highlanders, with regard to protecting family and defending honor.
107 Robert Louis Stevenson "My Shadow" from A Child's Garden of Verses (1885)[154]
Claire thinks of the poem while standing naked at the window: "I have a little shadow that goes in and out with me, / And what can be the use of him is more than I can see."
109 Bible Luke 15:11-32[61]
Claire refers to the parable about the prodigal son shortly after Young Ian has returned to Fraser's Ridge.
110 Alexander Carmichael (collector)
James Carmichael Watson (editor)
"An Tuiream Bàis (The Death Dirge)"[155]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. III (1940)
Jamie says the prayer during the brief observance of the loss of Ta'wineonawira – "Otter-Tooth" – and the other lost time-travelers, as well as Daniel Rawlings: "Thou goest home this night to thy home of winter..."
Bible Psalm 39:4-5, 12[156]
Roger speaks the verses for the lost time-travelers and Daniel Rawlings: "Lord, make me to know mine end, and the measure of my days, what it is: that I may know how frail I am..."
111 Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War, Book II, chapter 40 (ca. 431 - 400)
Jamie translates from the Greek: "The bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and yet notwithstanding, go out to meet it."

A Breath of Snow and AshesEdit

Chapter Source Reference
2 Bible Job 19:7-29[157]
Roger recites the passage as he and the others preside over a funeral for the anonymous Dutch family: "Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard..."
5 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow "Paul Revere's Ride" (1861)[158]
Claire thinks of the lines when Major MacDonald broaches the subject of the Committees of Safety: "On the eighteenth of April in Seventy-five..."
6 Pliny the Elder Natural History (77–79)[159]
Roger suggests Pliny's recipe for concrete for Brianna's problem of transporting water.
Daniel Defoe The Pirate Gow (1725)
The Beardsley twins admit to Brianna and Roger that they learned the word "brigands" from the book Lizzie had been reading to them.
9 Bible 1 Samuel 6:4[160]
Claire explains to Jamie what "emerods" are: "Then said they, What shall be the trespass offering which we shall return to him? They answered, Five golden emerods, and five golden mice, according to the number of the lords of the Philistines."
John Locke Two Treatises of Government (1689)
Claire quotes the Declaration of Independence, and Jamie informs her that Thomas Jefferson's idea regarding the "consent of the governed" originated with a man called Locke.
17 Bible 1 Samuel 28,[161] Revelation 17[162]
In his letter to Lord John Grey, Jamie explains the new tenants' view of Claire: "...you would think her the Witch of Endor, if not the Great Whore of Babylon."
19 Alexander Carmichael (collector)
James Carmichael Watson (editor)
"Achan Ìosa (Prayer to Jesus)"[163]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. III (1940)
The folk of Fraser's Ridge finish the haymaking and Jamie says a prayer aloud for the group: "I say the prayer from my mouth, I say the prayer from my heart..."

At the end of the chapter, Claire quotes the prayer again after Major MacDonald shares information about more burnings in the backcountry: "Stand between me and all things grisly."

Bible Proverbs 30:18-19[164]
Jamie quotes the passage as he and Claire observe Lizzie Wemyss flirting with Bobby Higgins: "Three things astonish me, nay four, sayeth the prophet: The way of an eagle in the air; the way of a serpent upon a rock; the way of a ship in the midst of the sea – and the way of a man with a maid."
21 1 Timothy 5:23[165]
Jamie quotes the passage to Tom Christie, who agrees to drink some wine while Claire tends to his injured hand: "Take a little wine for thy stomach's sake."
Proverbs 31:10, 31:13, 31:22[166]
Roger, feeling the calluses on Brianna's hands while she talks about plans for her next project, quotes from the chapter: "Who can find a virtuous woman? for her price is far above rubies... She seeketh wool, and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands... She maketh herself coverings of tapestry; her clothing is silk and purple."
23 1 Timothy 2:11-12[167]
Tom Christie starts to quote St. Paul to Claire: "Let a woman be silent..."
1 Timothy 5:23[165]
Claire quotes the passage to Tom Christie as she prepares to do surgery on his hand: "Take a little wine for thy stomach's sake."
Psalm 118:19-27[168]
Jamie reads aloud from the Bible during Tom Christie's surgery: "Open to me the gates of righteousness: I will go into them, and I will praise the Lord..."
Psalm 23[169]
Tom begins the psalm, but Claire finishes it: "The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want... Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil... Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever."
24 1 Corinthians 11:5[170]
Tom Christie uses the verse to support his notion that Claire ought to cover her hair properly: "But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoureth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven."
1 Corinthians 11:14-15[171]
Claire counters with a passage of her own: "Doth not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him? But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: for her hair is given her for a covering."
28 Reginald Heber "From Greenland's icy mountains" (1819)[172]
Claire makes oblique reference to the poem in her thoughts: "Definitely one of those prospects where only man was vile."
35 Tobias Smollett The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle (1751)
Malva reads aloud from the book while Marsali is in labor.
Henry Fielding The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749)
Malva, Ian and Jamie discuss literature and friendship.
Ovid Tristia (I, ix, 5)[173]
Jamie quotes the poet during their discussion: "So long as you are secure you will count many friends; if your life becomes clouded you will be alone."
37 Jean Giraudoux / trans. Maurice Valency The Madwoman of Chaillot (1945)
Claire likens Fergus's disheveled appearance to the title character of the satire.
39 Bible Romans 6:23[174]
Roger thinks of a sermon the Reverend used for funerals, and thinks it's from Epistles, but Jamie informs him it's actually in Romans 6: "For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord."
46 Ezekiel 6:9[175]
Malva Christie has a stream of questions for Claire about sex and how to interpret relevant Bible passages.
48 Mark 16:18[176]
Malva tells Jamie about how Gully Dornan brought a snake to Sunday meeting, knowing the subject of the text: "For they shall take up poisonous serpents, and suffer no harm."
49 Leviticus 18:7[116]
Brianna sees the scars on Jamie's back, and for a moment wishes to draw the tension in his shoulders, then thinks of the verse: "Thou shalt not uncover thy father's nakedness."
Alexander Carmichael (editor) "Eolas Gradhaidh (Love Charm)"
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. II (1900)
Mrs. Bug recites the love charm "Venom o' the North Wind" to Brianna: "A love charm for thee, / Water drawn through a straw, / The warmth of him thou lovest, / With love to draw on thee..."
51 Bible John 5:1-15[177]
Roger recalls to Jamie the story of the pool at Bethesda, where an angel would "trouble the waters" and folk would then step in to be healed.
Mark 13:14[178]
Jamie quotes the verse, in answer to Roger's question about whether he, Jamie, believed what his time-traveling family had told him about the future: "But when ye shall see the abomination of desolation, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth understand,) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains."
A. E. Housman A Shropshire Lad, LXII (1896)[179]
Jamie starts the quote, having heard Claire say it, and Roger finishes it: "And malt does more than Milton can / To justify God's ways to man. / Ale, man, ale's the stuff to drink / For fellows whom it hurts to think."
54 Bible Matthew 26:39,[180] Luke 22:42[181]
Claire quotes the verse, when Jamie confides his feeling of being cut off from his fellow countrymen, knowing they will be on opposing sides in the coming war: "Lord, that this cup might pass from me: but not my will be done, but Thine."
56 William Shakespeare MacBeth, Act I, scene 7, lines 1-2 (ca. 1606)[182]
Claire quotes the lines as she and Jamie prepare to call on Mrs. Sylvie, the proprietress of the local brothel, to treat the prostitutes for syphilis: "If it were done when 'tis done, then 'twere well / It were done quickly."
64 Presbyterian Church (USA) Book of Common Worship (1946)[183]
Roger prays over Claire as she finally begins to waken after her illness: "O Lord Jesus Christ, thou great Physician: Look with thy gracious favor upon this thy servant; give wisdom and discretion to those who minister to her in her sickness; bless all the means used for her recovery..."
72 Reginald Heber "From Greenland's icy mountains" (1819)[172]
Claire quotes the lines to Jamie, observing the beauty of River Run's environs in the wake of Jocasta's revelation about Phaedre's paternity: "Though every prospect pleases, / And only man is vile; ..."
89 William Shakespeare Julius Caesar, Act I, Scene 2, Line 195 (1599)[184]
Ian quotes the line to Jamie while they talk about Richard Brown: "He thinks too much: such men are dangerous."
116 Christopher Marlowe The Jew of Malta (1590)[146]
Brianna quotes the line to Lord John when they talk of Geneva Dunsany and her father: "But that was in another country,/ And besides, the wench is dead."

An Echo in the BoneEdit

Chapter Source Reference
1 Bible Matthew 27:35[185] / John 19:24[186]
Lord John paraphrases the verse: "And for his vesture, they cast lots."
4 Clement Clarke Moore "A Visit from St. Nicholas" (also known as "The Night Before Christmas" and "'​Twas the Night Before Christmas") (1823)
Claire quotes the poem at the wake for Mrs. Bug and Grannie MacLeod: "The moon on the breast of the new fallen snow, / Gave the luster of mid-day to objects below..."
John Donne Devotions upon Emergent Occasions (1624)[30]
Jamie and Claire discuss Meditation XVII: "No man is an island, entire of itself..."
Bible Psalm 23[169]
Claire sings the psalm in Gaelic at Mrs. Bug's funeral: "Is e Dia fèin a’s buachaill dhomh" (The Lord is my shepherd.)[187]
11 Alexander Carmichael (editor) "An Cath Nach Tainig (The Battle to Come)"[40]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
Jamie blesses Claire before she leaves to deliver Lizzie's second child.
"Bride Ban-Cobhair (Bride the Aid-Woman)"[188]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
Jamie prays for Lizzie and her unborn child.
Bible Job 5:7[91]
Jamie considers the meaning of the verse while walking to the Beardsleys' cabin: "Yet man is born to trouble, as the sparks fly upward."
12 William Butler Yeats "The Lake Isle of Innisfree" from The Countess Kathleen and Various Legends and Lyrics (1892)
Claire recalls the poem while taking her leave of Fraser's Ridge.[189]
18 Archie Bell & the Drells "Tighten Up" (1968)
Claire quotes a line from the song to Jamie: "We don't only sing but we dance / Just as good as we walk."
27 Lewis Carroll Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865)
Brianna likens her harrowing journey through the tunnel to Alice falling down the White Rabbit's hole.
29 Samuel Johnson A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1775)[190]
Roger talks to Mr. Menzies about Jem's punishment for speaking the "barbarous Erse" at school.
30 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Tales of a Wayside Inn, Part III, The Theologian's Tale: Elizabeth, IV (1863)[191]
Chapter title: "Ships That Pass in the Night"
Rudyard Kipling "If—" (1895)
Claire thinks of the first lines of the poem while observing Jamie's ability to keep calm in dire circumstances: "If you can keep your head when all about you/ Are losing theirs and blaming it on you ..."
Felicia Dorothea Hemans "Casabianca" (1826)
Claire quotes the first lines of the poem while Jamie and John Smith consider their options as an unknown ship approaches the Pitt: "The boy stood on the burning deck/ Whence all but he had fled ..."
Oliver Goldsmith The Art of Poetry on a New Plan, vol. ii. p. 147 (1761)[192][193]
Captain Asa Hickman uses the saying to convey the reasoning for his plan of action regarding Captain Stebbings and the Teal: "For he who fights and runs away/ May live to fight another day"
Jerome Kern (music)
Ira Gershwin (lyrics)
"Long Ago (and Far Away)" (1944)
Claire quotes the song title when she and Jamie recall Mr. Willoughby.
32 Prayer cycle in the Canonical Hours Office of the Dead, third Nocturne of Matins[194]
Lord John quotes the line to Harry Quarry to explain concisely his troubled thoughts: "Timor mortis conturbat me" ("The fear of death disturbs me").
34 Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. The Constitution of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, "Directory for Worship" (1901)[195]
Roger quotes the Constitution of the American Presbyterian Church.
Douglas Adams The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (1978)
Roger and Brianna use the name of the BBC radio show to refer to the guide to time travel that they start writing.
Mark M. Boatner III Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (1966)
Brianna notices a few new history books that Roger bought.
Joseph Plumb Martin A Narrative of a Revolutionary Soldier[196]
Brianna notices a few new history books that Roger bought.
36 H. Ranger Harris's List of Covent Garden Ladies (1757-1795)
William thinks of his copy of the annual directory whilst journeying through the Great Dismal Swamp.
Aristophanes The Frogs (405 BC)
William quotes the frogs' refrain while wandering through the swamp: "Brek-ek-ek-ex, co-ax, co-ax. Brek-ek-ek-ex, co-ax!"
46 Alexander Carmichael (editor) "Eolas Chnamh Chir (The Cud Chewing Charm)"[197]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. II (1900)
Roger reads aloud from the Carmina Gadelica.
"Eolas A Mheirbhein (The Indigestion Spell)"[198]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. II (1900)
Roger reads aloud from the Carmina Gadelica.
"Duan an Daoil (Poem of the Beetle)"[199]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. II (1900)
Roger reads aloud from the Carmina Gadelica.
Alexander Carmichael (collector)
James Carmichael Watson (editor)
"An Eala Bhàn (The White Swan)"[200][201]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. IV (1941)
Roger reads aloud from the Carmina Gadelica.
47 Bible Song of Solomon 8:6[202]
The quotation comes to Roger as he feels jealousy hearing Rob Cameron sing: "Love is strong as death; jealousy is cruel as the grave: the coals thereof are coals of fire"
52 William Shakespeare Hamlet (ca. 1599)
Claire compares Mrs. Raven to Ophelia.
57 Bible Matthew 24:20[203]
Claire thinks of the verse while considering the refugees from Fort Ticonderoga: "But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day"
58 William Shakespeare Macbeth, Act IV, Scene i, Line 79 (1606)[204]
Percy Wainwright uses the line to describe the difference between Lord John and the Baron Amandine, ascribing the quote to the former: "Bloody, bold, and resolute"
59 Bible Matthew 27:51[205]
The sentiment of the line comes to William when a letter arrives for General Burgoyne from General Howe: "And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent ..."
61 Laurence Sterne The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, Vol. I (1759)
Jamie finds a copy of the first volume, abandoned, and brings it to give to Claire. Jamie reads aloud a sentence from Chapter 3.XVI: "So that the life of a writer, whatever he might fancy to the contrary, was not so much a state of composition, as a state of warfare; and his probation in it, precisely that of any other man militant upon earth,—both depending alike, not half so much upon the degrees of his wit—as his Resistance."[206]
62 Bible Genesis 18:24[207]
Jamie quotes the passage to Claire to explain how he feels about the loss of his finger: "Wilt thou not destroy the city, for the sake of fifty just men?"
64 Robert Browning "Andrea del Sarto" from Men and Women (1855)[208]
In response to Major General Arnold's question about the philosophy of endeavor, Jamie quotes the lines, which he had heard from Claire: "Ah, but a man's reach should exceed his grasp, / Or what's a heaven for?"
Sir Walter Scott Tales of a grandfather: being stories taken from Scottish history,
Volume 1 (1828)[209]
Claire references the legend about Robert the Bruce and the spider to illustrate how even some small thing can have a huge influence.
65 Richard Brinsley Sheridan / Chris Humphreys The Rivals (1775) / Jack Absolute series
A Welsh lieutenant named Absolute calls to William across a field about a game of hazard. The character is named as a nod to C.C. Humphreys' Jack Absolute series, whose title character is in turn based on the main character of the Sheridan play The Rivals.
74 T. S. Eliot "Whispers of Immortality" from Poems (1919)[99]
Claire quotes the lines to Andrew Bell as they see about fixing the leakage of Brigadier General Simon Fraser's coffin: "And saw the skull beneath the skin; / And breastless creatures under ground / Leaned backward with a lipless grin."
Lewis Carroll Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865)[210]
Claire thinks of the line as she struggles to begin writing her book: "Begin at the beginning, and go on till you come to the end: then stop."
75 Bible Job 7:10[211]
Claire thinks of the line during Brigadier General Simon Fraser's burial: "And his place will know him no more."
76 Psalm 22:17[212]
Claire thinks of the line when she sees how the elder Ian's illness has ravaged his body: "I can count all my bones . . ."

Written in My Own Heart's BloodEdit

Chapter Source Reference
9 William Shakespeare Julius Caesar, Act IV, scene 3, line 218 (ca. 1599)
Chapter title: A Tide in the Affairs of Men
10 Bible John 20:29[41]
Jamie thinks of the line while sitting with George Washington and his men, pondering the odd feeling of meeting someone Claire had already told him about: "Blessed are those who have not seen but have believed."
13 Richard Wilbur "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World"
from Things of This World (1956)
Chapter title: Morning Air Awash with Angels[213]
20 Lewis Carroll "The Walrus and the Carpenter" from Through the Looking-Glass (1871)
Chapter title: Of Cabbages and Kings
24 Catholic Church, Edward Caswall Veni Sancte Spiritus ("Come, Holy Spirit") in translation from
Lyra Catholica, containing all the breviary and missal hymns (1849)
Chapter title: Welcome Coolness in the Heat, Comfort in the Midst of Woe[214]
27 Robert Herrick "Seek and Find" (1591-1674)
Chapter title: Nothing's So Hard But Search Will Find it Out
32 William Shakespeare Henry VI, Part 3, Act IV, Scene 7 (ca. 1591)
Chapter title: "For many men who stumble at the threshold are well foretold that danger lurks within"
33 Samuel Beckett The Unnamable (1954)
Roger feels calmer after a night's sleep at Lallybroch, and thinks of the line while considering what lies before him: "I can't go on, I'll go on."
38 Bible Revelation 13:18[215]
Chapter title: The Number of the Beast
40 Hebrews 13:2[216]
Buck quotes the passage in Gaelic to Dougal: "Do not forget to entertain strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares."[217]
John 20:29[41]
Roger thinks of the line after meeting Dougal MacKenzie: "Blessed are those who have not seen but have believed."
45 Phil Rickman The Cure of Souls (2001)
Chapter title: The Cure of Souls[218]
48 William Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet (1597)
Ian remarks that love is not usually a fatal condition, and Denny agrees, though cites the feuding Montague and Capulet families as an exception.
57 Dylan Thomas "Do not go gentle into that good night"
from In Country Sleep, And Other Poems (1952)
Chapter title
95 Walt Whitman "I Sing the Body Electric"
from Leaves of Grass, Book IV "Children of Adam" (1855/1867)[219]
Brianna recites the lines to herself as she contemplates ley lines, the practice of focusing on loved ones for time travel, and Roger: "I sing the body electric, / The armies of those I love engirth me ..."[220] The Body Electric also serves as the chapter title.
Part VII Bible Psalm 39:13[221]
Section title: Before I Go Hence
115 William Shakespeare Macbeth, Act II, scene 2, line 48 (ca. 1606)[222]
Chapter title: The Raveled Sleeve of Care
119 William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act V, Scene 1
Chapter title: "Alas, poor Yorick!"
125 James M. Sayles "Star of the Evening" (1855)[223]
Chapter title: Squid of the Evening, Beautiful Squid[224]
128 Alexander Carmichael (editor) "Beannachadh Seilg (Hunting Blessing)"[225]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
Jamie says a verse from the blessing for Germain while he and the other men are fishing and gigging frogs: "Thou shalt not eat fallen fish nor fallen flesh, / Nor one bird that thy hand shall not bring down, / Be thou thankful for the one, / Though nine should be swimming."
132 William Shakespeare MacBeth, Act IV, scene 1, lines 14-15 (ca. 1606)[150]
William recites the lines to himself as he walks through the army camp, seeing the laundresses with their cauldrons: "Eye of newt and toe of frog, / Wool of bat and tongue of dog..."
134 Alexander Carmichael (collector)
James Carmichael Watson (editor)
"An Tuiream Bàis (The Death Dirge)"[155]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. III (1940)
Jamie says the prayer in English at Jane's funeral, for the benefit of the non-Gaelic speakers.
137 Bible Jeremiah 9:2[226]
Chapter title: In the Wilderness a Lodging Place
141 Marianne Moore "Silence" from Observations (1924)[227]
Chapter title: The Deepest Feeling Always Shows Itself in Silence
Alexander Carmichael (editor) "Comharrachadh (Marking the Lambs)"[228]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. I (1900)
Jenny says the charm as she gathers the goats to continue on their journey home: "The Three who are above in the City of glory, be shepherding my flock and my kine..."

Lord John Grey seriesEdit

Lord John and the Hellfire ClubEdit

Chapter Source Reference
3 Francis Bacon Essays, XIII. Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature (1612/1625)[229]
Lord John begins the quote, and George Everett finishes it: "The desire of power in excess caused the angels to fall; the desire of knowledge in excess caused man to fall."

Lord John and the Private MatterEdit

Chapter Source Reference
1 William Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet, Act III, scene 1, lines 96-97 (1597)[230]
Lord John Grey, having seen what he thinks is a syphilitic sore on Joseph Trevelyan's prick, thinks of the lines to himself, paraphrased: "Not so deep as a well, nor so wide as a door.... But it will suffice."[231]
6 Christopher Marlowe The Jew of Malta (1590)[146]
Lord John, while laying beside the whore, Nessie, recalls Jamie Fraser's wife, who had similarly curly hair: "But that was in another country,/ And besides, the wench is dead."
11 Edmund Burke A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757)
Benedicta Grey is reading "Edmund's latest" when Lord John asks her about the wine she served at her German party the week before.
John Cleland Fanny Hill (1748)
Benedicta offers the novel as an alternative choice for Lord John. In the following chapter, John finds himself still carrying the copy of Fanny Hill when he meets with Harry Quarry, who is amused by an inscription, addressed to Benedicta, on the title page.
Dante Alighieri La Vita Nuova (1295)
Benedicta Grey refers to Dante (Alighieri) and Beatrice (Portinari) during her discussion with Lord John about the passions of young people.

Lord John and the SuccubusEdit

Chapter Source Reference
Epilogue Bible Job 39:19-25[232]
Lord John quotes the passage to himself before the battle to come: "Hast thou given the horse strength? hast thou clothed his neck with thunder? ... He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength: he goeth on to meet the armed men. He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted; neither turneth he back from the sword. ... He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains, and the shouting."

Lord John and the Brotherhood of the BladeEdit

Chapter Source Reference
1 Henry Fielding The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749)
Lord John thinks about stepfathers as depicted in fiction, and puts the question to Hal whether their new stepfather will be like Squire Allworthy of Fielding's novel.
William Shakespeare Hamlet (ca. 1599)
Lord John suggests the character of Claudius as another possibility on the question of stepfathers.
Bible New Testament
Lord John remembers Saint Joseph as another famous stepfather of literature.
5 Denis Diderot Les bijoux indiscrets (1748)
Lord John demonstrates mock astonishment upon learning that Lady Lucinda Joffrey has read the erotic novel.
8 Church of England Book of Common Prayer (1662)[233]
Lord John attends Geneva Dunsany's funeral and thinks of passages from the Book of Common Prayer.[234]
James VI and I Daemonologie (1597)
Lord John recalls finding this treatise while conducting research after his experience with the Hellfire Club.
Bible / Henry Purcell Psalm 130: 1-7[235]
Lord John hears the lines of the hymn during Geneva's funeral service: "Out of the deep have I called unto Thee, O Lord: Lord, hear my voice"[236]
Episcopal Church Book of Common Prayer (1979)
Lord John hears the lines during Geneva's funeral service: "Give courage and faith to those who are bereaved, that they may have strength to meet the days ahead in the comfort of a reasonable and holy hope, in the joyful expectation of eternal life with those they love."[237]
12 Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus Epitoma Rei Militaris (ca. 385-450)
Lord John peruses Melton's library in search of suitable volumes for Percy's military edification, and quotes a line to himself: "Few men are born brave; many become so through care and force of discipline."
Éléazar de Mauvillon Histoire de la Dernière Guerre de Bohème (1756)[238]
Lord John selects the first volume for Percy to read.
Virgil Aeneid (ca. 29–19 BC)
Lord John selects the volume for Percy to read.
13 Henry Fielding Champion, February 19, 1739-40[239]
Lord John recalls Fielding's description of Newgate as a "prototype of hell".[240]
19 Matthew Bacon A new abridgement of the law: by a gentleman of the Middle Temple, vol. IV (1759)[241]
Percy reads a passage to Lord John about the crime of sodomy.
31 William Shakespeare MacBeth (ca. 1606)
Three conspirators in the Jacobite plot to kill King George used the names MacBeth, Fleance, and Siward as aliases. Arthur Longstreet believes that "Siward" referred to Victor Arbuthnot.
35 Catullus Catullus 101
Lord John reads an unsigned note from Percy, and intones a sentiment similar to Catullus' poem: "Ave atque vale, frater meus." Hail—and farewell.[242]

The Custom of the ArmyEdit

Chapter Source Reference
n/a Bible Matthew 5:6[243]
Charlie Carruthers quotes the verse to Lord John after entrusting him with what he knows about Gerald Siverly's corruption: "Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled."
Thomas Gray Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, lines 33-36 (1751)[244]
General Wolfe intones lines from the poem while he, Lord John, and the other soldiers approach the Plains of Abraham by ship: "The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, / And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave, / Awaits alike the inevitable hour. / The paths of glory lead but to the grave."

The Scottish PrisonerEdit

Chapter Source Reference
4 Abbé Prévost Manon Lescaut (1731)[245]
Lord John peruses the volume while watching Mr. Beasley at work on Charles Carruthers' testimony against Gerald Siverly.
5 William Congreve The Mourning Bride, Act III, scene 2, and Act I, scene 1 (1697)[83][246]
Jamie thinks of the lines, as well as the full scene, while he drives Lady Isobel into town: "Heav'n has no Rage, like Love to Hatred turn'd, / Nor Hell a Fury, like a Woman scorn'd."
7 Samuel Johnson / James Boswell Life of Samuel Johnson (1791)
Chapter title: When a Man Is Tired of London, He Is Tired of Life
9 Barthold Heinrich Brockes Irdisches Vergnügen in Gott (1721–1748)
Mr. Frobisher recites a German poem while dining with Lord John, Harry Quarry, and Stephan von Namtzen.
14 Julius Caesar Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Liber III.18 (58–49 BC)[247]
Lord John tells Jamie that his nephew, Benjamin, is reciting The Gallic War to Minerva, and he invariably loses his place at a certain passage: "Fere libenter homines id quod volunt credunt" (Men generally believe what they want to)
18 William Darrell The Gentleman Instructed in the conduct of a virtuous and happy life (1727, 9th edition)[248]
Tom Byrd reads aloud from the book while he, Lord John, Jamie, and Tobias Quinn sit round the fire.
John Arbuthnot An Essay Concerning the Nature of Aliments, and the Choice of Them, According to the Different Constitutions of Human Bodies (1731)[249]
Lord John reflects that he would rather listen to Tom's recitation from The Gentleman Instructed than the lad's usual favorite by Arbuthnot.
20 William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act I, scene 5, line 108 (ca. 1599)[250]
Jamie thinks of the line as he awaits his meeting with Gerald Siverly: "That one may smile, and smile, and be a villain."
22 Catullus Catullus 3[251]
Lord John thinks of the lines while walking to Glastuig to face Siverly: "Qui nunc it per iter tenebricosum / illuc, unde negant redire quemquam." (Now he goes along the dark road, thither whence they say no man returns.)
23 Bible Proverbs 28:1[252]
Lord John thinks of the verse while in pursuit of a fleeing Siverly: "The guilty flee where no man pursueth."
24 Homer / Alexander Pope Iliad, Book XVII (8th century BC, trans. 1715)[253]
Jamie reads the work in Greek while waiting for Lord John to return from Glastuig. The translation on the page is by Pope: "Not thus the lion glories in his might, / Nor panther braves his spotted foe in fight, / Nor thus the boar, those terrors of the plain; / Man only vaunts his force, and vaunts in vain."
28 Traditional "The Frog and Mouse"[254][255]
Lord John, feeling mildly dazed by the chorus of frogs surrounding him and Jamie, makes reference to the song ("Croakle dum-ho") and promises to sing it to Jamie later.
Bible Job 7:10[211]
Lord John says the verse to himself as he finishes searching Siverly's house: "And his place shall know him no more."
29 Rudyard Kipling "If—" (1895)
Lord John thinks of a line that would be good for a poem – "If you can hold on to your stomach when all about you are losing theirs..." – which would seem to be a parodied nod to Kipling's poem, published over a century later.
31 Edmund Burke A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757)
Jamie emerges from Hal's library carrying the volume, at the sound of the latter's demand to know where "that bloody Scotchman" is.
Cicero Tusculanae Disputationes (45 BC)
Lord John is relieved that Jamie does not have Cicero's Disputations in hand, these being likely to inflict more damage as a weapon in the hands of the angry Scot.
32 Traditional / Dorothy L. Sayers "The Three Ravens"
Lord John thinks of the lines as he readies himself for the duel with Edward Twelvetrees: "God send each noble man at his end / Such hawks, such hounds, and such a friend."[256]
35 Bible 1 Corinthians 7:9[14]
Lord John reacts internally to Jamie's revelation that he has an "understanding" with a lady's maid at Helwater, thinking of the phrase "better to marry than burn."
Cicero "Sword of Damocles"
in Tusculanae Disputationes, Liber V.21 (45 BC)
Lord John compares the unpleasant necessity of meeting with Reginald Twelvetrees to Damocles' sword, or "a weight suspended by a spider's thread."
38 Bible Job 7:10[211]
Jamie thinks of the verse while contemplating the rhythms of a working farm such as Helwater, and feels certain that Lallybroch would absorb him back into its rhythm, should he ever return: "And his place shall know him no more."
41 Eliza Haywood Love in Excess; or, The Fatal Enquiry (1719-20)
Lord John is reading the novel in bed when Jamie arrives in the middle of the night to deposit Isobel Dunsany into John's care.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Joshua 6:26, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  2. Genesis 19:26, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  3. The Merchant of Venice, Act IV, scene 1 – accessed 23 September 2015.
  4. William Mackay. Urquhart and Glenmoriston; olden times in a Highland parish. 1914. Accessed 6 January 2016.
  5. Gaelic: "Bithidh mi maireach air cnoc gun cheann,
    'Us cha bhi baigh aig duine rium —
    Nach truagh leat fhein mo chaileag bhronach,
    Mo Mhairi bhoidheach, mheall-shuileach !"
    — from Urquhart and Glenmoriston; olden times in a Highland parish by William Mackay.
  6. The Randalls' tour guide's story also comes from Urquhart and Glenmoriston; olden times in a Highland parish, including this quote: "The Devil will take the Laird of Grant out of his shoes, and Donald Donn shall not be hanged!"
  7. 1 Corinthians 14:34, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  8. Burns supper – The Selkirk Grace via Wikipedia. Accessed 15 April 2015.
  9. Hamlet: Act III, scene 4, line 57 – accessed 2 September 2015.
  10. Genesis 27:11, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  11. This comparison is strengthened by the description of Esau as being born "red, all over like an hairy garment" and "a cunning hunter, a man of the field" while Jacob was "a plain man, dwelling in tents" (Genesis 25:25).
  12. 12.0 12.1 Alexander Carmichael. "Notes." |"Notes." Carmina Gadelica, vol. II. 1900. Accessed 16 April 2015.
  13. Out of Catullus by Richard Crashaw. Accessed 14 April 2015
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 1 Corinthians 7:9, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  15. Hamlet: Act I, scene 5, line 20:
    "Thy knotted and combined locks to part
    And each particular hair to stand on end,
    Like quills upon the fretful porpentine." Accessed 28 August 2015.
  16. MacBeth: Act IV, scene 1, line 44 – accessed 2 September 2015.
  17. Colossians 3:12, King James Version. Accessed 1 June 2016.
  18. Bible verse: Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind, meekness, longsuffering; ...
  19. Habakkuk 3:5, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  20. Proverbs 2:16-18, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  21. Exodus 22:18, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  22. Jamie's English translation resembles that given by Archibald Clerk in The Poems of Ossian: In the Original Gaelic with a Literal Translation Into English and a Dissertation on the Authenticity of the Poems (1870). The original Gaelic can also be found in Caraid nan Gaidheal = The friend of the Gael : a choice selection of Gaelic writings via Internet Archive. Accessed 28 August 2015.
  23. In Cross Stitch he is translating the works of Saint Jerome.
  24. 1 Samuel 5:9, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  25. Psalms 22, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  26. Job 14:22, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  27. Job 33:19-25, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  28. 1 Corinthians 13:12, King James version. Accessed 2 September 2015.
  29. Psalm 146:3, King James Version. Accessed 25 September 2015.
  30. 30.0 30.1 Meditation #17 By John Donne From Devotions upon Emergent Occasions (1623), XVII. Accessed 15 April 2015.
  31. Claire says, "Ask not for whom the tumbril calls; it calls for thee." A tumbril is a two-wheeled cart or wagon, notable for taking prisoners to the guillotine during the French Revolution.
  32. Harlequin, Cock-robin and Jenny Wren by William Schwenck Gilbert, 1836-1911. Accessed 28 August 2015.
  33. Hamlet: Act I, scene 5, lines 166-167. Accessed 2 September 2015.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Paraphrased from the original Scots: The best-laid schemes o' mice an' men ...
  35. Genesis 3:19, King James Version. Accessed 15 April 2015.
  36. Requiem by Robert Louis Stevenson
  37. Marmion: Canto VI, XXX – accessed 2 September 2015.
  38. Exodus 34:7, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  39. Jeremiah 11:19, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  40. 40.0 40.1 "An Cath Nach Tainig (The Battle to Come)": Invocations. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 15 April 2015.
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 John 20:29, King James Version. Accessed 27 May 2015.
  42. Hell's Gate from Last Poems, via Project Gutenberg. Accessed 2 September 2015.
  43. Genesis 3, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  44. VITA ADAE ET EVAE, XXXIV.1-2, Pseudepigrapha. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  45. The Life of Adam and Eve proclaims seventy afflictions in every part of the body, though what these were specifically is left to interpretation. See The Genesis of Perfection: Adam and Eve in Jewish and Christian Imagination by Gary A. Anderson. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  46. 1 Timothy 2:14-15, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  47. John 11, King James Version. Accessed 23 September 2015.
  48. Romans 5:9, King James Version. Accessed 2 September 2015.
  49. Paradise Lost, Book IV – accessed 2 September 2015.
  50. Diana Gabaldon confirmed Woodhill is a real author and Patriots is a real book - Accessed 02 September 2016
  51. An anachronism, as Héloïse was not published until 1761, whereas the scene in question takes place in 1755.
  52. Acts 2, King James Version. Accessed 13 August 2015.
  53. Isaiah 14:12, King James Version. Accessed 22 April 2015.
  54. The Sprightly Tailor from Celtic Fairy Tales. Accessed 2 September 2015.
  55. There are many variations on this tale, including:
  56. Luke 6:37, King James Version. Accessed 22 November 2016.
  57. "Fois Anama (Soul Peace)": Invocations. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 14 April 2015.
  58. "An Treoraich Anama (The Soul Leading)": Invocations. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 14 April 2015.
  59. Marmion – Canto the Sixth. Accessed 2 June 2015.
  60. The Death of the Hired Man. Accessed 22 April 2015.
  61. 61.0 61.1 Luke 15:11-32, King James Version. Accessed 2 February 2016.
  62. Tacitus via Wikiquote. Accessed 28 May 2015.
  63. Hamlet: Act II, scene 2, lines 378-379 – accessed 28 May 2015.
  64. Romeo and Juliet: Act II, scene 2, line 43 – accessed 2 September 2015.
  65. Law is a bottomless-pit: Exemplified in the case of the Lord Strutt, John Bull, Nicholas Frog, and Lewis Baboon. Who spent all they had in a law-suit. Printed from a manuscript found in the cabinet of the famous Sir Humphry Polesworth. Accessed 3 September 2015.
  66. The Seaside and the Fireside via Wikisource. Accessed 28 May 2015.
  67. More Poems – Accessed 28 May 2015.
  68. More Poems – Accessed 28 May 2015.
  69. Song of Solomon 2:5-6, King James Version. Accessed 7 June 2015.
  70. Additional Poems – Accessed 20 November 2015.
  71. First published in My Brother, A. E. Housman, a memoir by Laurence Housman.
  72. Oh who is that young sinner with the handcuffs on his wrists?
    And what has he been after that they groan and shake their fists?
    And wherefore is he wearing such a conscience-stricken air?
    Oh they're taking him to prison for the colour of his hair.

    'Tis a shame to human nature, such a head of hair as his;
    In the good old time 'twas hanging for the colour that it is;
    Though hanging isn't bad enough and flaying would be fair
    For the nameless and abominable colour of his hair.
    — from Additional Poems
  73. "Am Beannachadh Bais (The Death Blessing)": Invocations. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 15 April 2015.
  74. Job 1:13-22, King James Version. Accessed 5 January 2016.
  75. "Fragmentum Petron. Arbitr." Underwoods by Ben Jonson. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  76. Amphitruo (Amphitryon) by Plautus. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  77. virtus praemium est optimum;
    virtus omnibus rebus anteit profecto:
    libertas salus vita res et parentes, patria et prognati
    tutantur, servantur:
    virtus omnia in sese habet, omnia adsunt
    bona quem penest virtus.
  78. Aeneid (Latin text) – accessed 4 September 2015.
  79. The Agreeable Surprise – accessed 4 September 2015.
  80. Amo, amas, I love a lass
    As a cedar tall and slender;
    Sweet cowslip’s grace
    is her nominative case,
    And she’s o' the feminine gender.

    Can I decline a Nymph so divine?
    Her voice like a flute is dulcis.
    Her oculus bright, her manus white,
    And soft, when I tacto, her pulse is.

    Oh, how bella my puella,
    I’ll kiss secula seculorum.
    If I’ve luck, sir, she’s my uxor,
    O dies benedictorum.
  81. Proverbs 31:10, King James Version. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  82. Matthew 6:34, King James Version. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  83. 83.0 83.1 The Mourning Bride, Act III, Scene 2 – accessed 5 January 2016.
  84. Song of Solomon 7:4, King James Version. Accessed 21 August 2015.
  85. Ruth 1:16-17, King James Version. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  86. Matthew 5:7, King James Version. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  87. Luke 3:7, King James Version. Accessed 21 September 2015.
  88. I Lovèd A Lass. Miscellanea of the Rymour Club, v.1. Accessed via HathiTrust 4 September 2015.
  89. "I Once Loved A Lass..." - The Story Of The "False Bride" And Her Forsaken Lover. Analysis of different versions of the song. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  90. 90.0 90.1 Matthew 6:30, King James Version. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  91. 91.0 91.1 Job 5:7, New King James Version. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  92. 92.0 92.1 Psalm 103:15-16, King James Version. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  93. 1 Peter 1:24-25, King James Version. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  94. "Teisreadh Taighe (House Protecting)": Invocations. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 14 April 2015.
  95. "An Saodachadh (The Driving)". Accessed 15 April 2015.
  96. Meditations by Marcus Aurelius, translated by Maxwell Staniforth. Accessed 18 November 2015.
  97. Aeneid, , Book IV, line 23 – accessed 21 September 2015.
  98. Concise Oxford Dictionary of Quotations by Susan Ratcliffe. Accessed 21 September 2015.
  99. 99.0 99.1 "Whispers of Immortality" by T. S. Eliot. Accessed 22 May 2015.
  100. Hamlet: Act V, Scene 1, lines 163-164 – accessed 3 September 2015.
  101. The Complete Works of John Keats, Volume 2, "Written in Disgust of Vulgar Superstition", page 174. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  102. Ode on a Grecian Urn – accessed 4 September 2015.
  103. ODE TO THE WEST WIND – accessed 4 September 2015.
  104. Make me thy lyre, even as the forest is:
    What if my leaves are falling like its own!
    The tumult of thy mighty harmonies

    Will take from both a deep, autumnal tone,
    Sweet though in sadness. Be thou, spirit fierce,
    My spirit! Be thou me, impetuous one!

    Drive my dead thoughts over the universe
    Like withered leaves to quicken a new birth!
    And, by the incantation of this verse,

    Scatter, as from an unextinguished hearth
    Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind!
    Be through my lips to unawakened earth

    The trumpet of a prophecy! O, wind,
    If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?
  105. Prometheus Unbound: A Lyrical Drama in Four Acts. By Percy Bysshe Shelley. Act I. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  106. This is only a possible source of Jamie and Lord John's reference. Gabaldon herself explains in The Outlandish Companion that the quotes in the text attributed to Epicharmus are only "rough approximations." See The Boastful Chef: The Discourse of Food in Ancient Greek Comedy, page 136, footnote 161.
  107. Comicorvm graecorvm fragmenta by Georg Kaibel. ΘΕΑΡΟΙ (Thearoi), fragment 79. Accessed 21 November 2015.
  108. The Cambridge History of Classical Literature: Volume 1, Greek Literature By P. E. Easterling, Bernard M. W. Knox
  109. Olympian 1: For Hieron of Syracuse Single Horse Race 476 B. C. via Perseus. Accessed 22 November 2015.
  110. Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland: Collected Entirely from Oral Sources by John Gregorson Campbell. Accessed 23 November 2015.
  111. Gaelic text:
    Seachd sgadain sath bradain,
    Seachd bradain sath roin.
    Seachd roin sath mial-mor-mara.
    Seachd mial sath Cirein-croin.
    — from Gaelic names of beasts (Mammalia), birds, fishes, insects, reptiles, etc. in two parts by Alexander Robert Forbes
  112. First recorded citation in Monro, His expedition with the worthy Scots regiment (called Mac-Keyes-regiment) levied in August 1626 by Robert Monro. Accessed 24 November 2015.
  113. There is also a song by this name, published in 1932 with music by Harold Arlen and lyrics by Ted Koehler.
  114. The Blind Men and the Elephant by John Godfrey Saxe. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  115. "I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
    And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;
    Nine bean rows will I have there, a hive for the honey bee,
    And live alone in the bee loud glade." — via Wikipedia
  116. 116.0 116.1 Leviticus 18:7, King James Version. Accessed 9 December 2015.
  117. Version in ABC My Grannie Caught a Flea: Scots Children s Rhymes and Songs, attributed to Rymour 1911:
    There was a man i Muir o Skene
    He had dirks, and I had nane
    But I fell till'm wi my thoombs
    And wat ye hoo, I dirkit him, dirkit him, dirkit him
  118. 118.0 118.1 Romans 12:19, King James Version. Accessed 10 December 2015.
  119. Genesis 2:24, King James Version. Accessed 23 December 2015.
  120. Roger paraphrases, switching the roles of the husband and wife in the verse: "Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife..."
  121. Scottish Proverbs: Collected and Arranged by Andrew Henderson. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  122. The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs by Jennifer Speake. "happy is the BRIDE that the sun shines on" and "Blessed are the DEAD that the rain rains on" Accessed 8 September 2015.
  123. Matthew 19:5, King James Version. Accessed 5 January 2016.
  124. Roger paraphrases, switching the roles of the husband and wife in the verse: 'For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh?'
  125. Luke 6:19, King James Version. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  126. Genesis 18:11, King James Version. Accessed 23 December 2015.
  127. Folk-lore of Women: As Illustrated by Legendary and Traditional Tales, Folk-rhymes, Proverbial Sayings, Superstitions, Etc by Thomas Firminger Thiselton Dyer. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  128. Proverbs and Their Lessons, Being the Substance of Lectures Delivered to Young Men's Societies by Richard Chenevix Trench. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  129. Matthew 19:6, King James Version. Accessed 23 December 2015.
  130. Mark 10:8-9, King James Version. Accessed 23 December 2015.
  131. "Beannachdan (Blessings)". Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 14 April 2015.
  132. Julius Caesar, Act III, scene 1, line 77 – accessed 23 December 2015.
  133. A Midsummer Night's Dream, Act IV, scene 2, lines 42-43 – accessed 23 December 2015.
  134. "Beannachadh Tàimh (Rest Benediction)": Night Shielding. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 14 April 2015.
  135. Proverbs 27:19, King James Version. Accessed 23 December 2015.
  136. In Dante's poem, the fifth circle is reserved for those guilty of the sin of anger, or wrath.
  137. The Lord Peter Wimsey Mysteries, Volumes One through Three: Whose Body?, Clouds of Witness, and Unnatural Death by Dorothy L. Sayers. Accessed via Google Books 28 December 2015.
  138. The Three Musketeers, chapter 66 [English version]: "Let the justice of God be done!"
  139. Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by Robert Frost. Accessed 31 December 2015.
  140. Revelations of Divine Love: The Thirteenth Revelation, Chapter XXVII by Julian of Norwich. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  141. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (58–50 BC) and Commentarii de Bello Civili (49–48 BC)
  142. The Natural History of North-Carolina by John Brickell. Accessed 31 December 2015.
  143. The Merchant of Venice, Act II, scene 2, lines 76-77 – accessed 31 December 2015.
  144. "Dùrachd (Good Wish)": Night Shielding. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 5 January 2016.
  145. Proverbs 16:18, King James Version. Accessed 11 January 2016.
  146. 146.0 146.1 146.2 146.3 The Jew of Malta – full text. Accessed 22 April 2015.
  147. Matthew 5:9, King James Version. Accessed 2 February 2016.
  148. Mark 6:25-27, King James Version. Accessed 21 November 2015.
  149. Matthew 14:8-11, King James Version. Accessed 21 November 2015.
  150. 150.0 150.1 MacBeth, Act IV, scene 1, lines 14-15 – accessed 8 September 2015.
  151. Mark Twain's Letters: arranged with comment by Albert Bigelow Paine. Accessed 8 September 2015.
  152. See also Music.
  153. Psalm 107:23-30, King James Version. Accessed 25 January 2016.
  154. XVIII. My Shadow, A Child's Garden of Verses. Accessed 2 February 2016.
  155. 155.0 155.1 "An Tuiream Bàis (The Death Dirge)": Death. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 27 May 2015.
  156. Psalm 39, King James Version. Accessed 2 February 2016.
  157. Job 19:7-29, King James Version. Accessed 29 June 2015.
  158. Paul Revere's Ride. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  159. Pliny the Elder. Translated by John Bostock and H.T. Riley. "BOOK XXXVI. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF STONES. CHAP. 54.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF SAND. THE COMBINATIONS OF SAND WITH LIME." |"BOOK XXXVI. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF STONES. CHAP. 54.—THE VARIOUS KINDS OF SAND. THE COMBINATIONS OF SAND WITH LIME." The Natural History. Trans. 1855. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  160. 1 Samuel 6:4, King James Version. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  161. 1 Samuel 28, King James Version. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  162. Revelation 17, King James Version. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  163. "Achan Ìosa (Prayer to Jesus)": Prayers for Protection. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 25 March 2015.
  164. Proverbs 30:18-19, King James Version. Accessed 16 February 2016.
  165. 165.0 165.1 1 Timothy 5:23, King James Version. Accessed 19 February 2016.
  166. Proverbs 31:10-22, King James Version. Accessed 19 February 2016.
  167. 1 Timothy 2:11-12, King James Version. Accessed 19 February 2016.
  168. Psalm 118:19-27, King James Version. Accessed 19 February 2016.
  169. 169.0 169.1 Psalm 23, King James Version. Accessed 19 February 2016.
  170. 1 Corinthians 11:5, King James Version. Accessed 19 February 2016.
  171. 1 Corinthians 11:14-15, King James Version. Accessed 19 February 2016.
  172. 172.0 172.1 From Greenland’s icy mountains – accessed 15 August 2015
  173. Tristia, I, ix, 5, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 14 April 2015
  174. Romans 6:23, King James Version. Accessed 7 February 2016.
  175. Ezekiel 6:9, King James Version. Accessed 2 March 2016.
  176. Mark 16:18, King James Version. Accessed 2 March 2016.
  177. John 5:1-15, Authorized King James Version. Accessed 21 March 2016.
  178. Mark 13:14, King James Version. Accessed 21 March 2016.
  179. A Shropshire Lad, LXII – accessed 21 March 2016.
  180. Matthew 26:39, King James Version. Accessed 21 March 2016.
  181. Luke 22:42, King James Version. Accessed 21 March 2016.
  182. MacBeth: Act I, scene 7, lines 1-2 – accessed 21 March 2016.
  183. Book of Common Worship, 1946. Accessed 20 April 2016.
  184. Julius Caesar, Act I, Scene 2, Line 195. Accessed 15 April 2015.
  185. Matthew 27:35, King James Version. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  186. John 19:24, King James Version. Accessed 4 September 2015.
  187. "Is e Dia fèin a’s buachaill dhomh" (Psalm 23). Accessed 19 April 2015
  188. "Bride Ban-Cobhair (Bride the Aid-Woman)": Seasons. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 29 April 2015.
  189. "I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
    And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;
    Nine bean rows will I have there, a hive for the honey bee,
    And live alone in the bee loud glade.
    And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow, [...]" — via Wikipedia
  190. A Journey to the Western Isles of Scotland, by Samuel Johnson: "Of the Earse language, as I understand nothing, I cannot say more than I have been told. It is the rude speech of a barbarous people, who had few thoughts to express, and were content, as they conceived grossly, to be grossly understood." Accessed 6 May 2015.
  191. Tales of a Wayside Inn, Part III, The Theologian's Tale: Elizabeth, IV. Accessed 15 April 2015.
  192. Oliver Goldsmith via Wikiquote
  193. The Art of Poetry on a New Plan – page 147 of full text. Accessed 6 May 2015.
  194. A Hypertext Book of Hours – prepared by Glenn Gunhouse. Accessed 6 May 2015.
  195. The Constitution of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America – accessed 12 May 2015.
  196. Though the original text was published in 1830, this title was used for the 2001 edition of the narrative. Roger would likely have ordered a copy called Private Yankee Doodle, or some other edition published by 1980.
  197. "Eolas Chnamh Chir (The Cud Chewing Charm)", page 140, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 11 May 2015.
  198. "Eolas A Mheirbhein (The Indigestion Spell)", page 138, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 11 May 2015.
  199. "Duan an Daoil (Poem of the Beetle)", page 192, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 11 May 2015.
  200. "An Eala Bhàn (The White Swan)": Glòir nan Eun (The Speech of Birds). Accessed 11 May 2015.
  201. Carmina Gadelica – metadata. Accessed 11 May 2015.
  202. Song of Solomon 8:6, King James Version. Accessed 11 May 2015.
  203. Matthew 24:20, King James Version. Accessed 12 May 2015.
  204. Macbeth: Act 4, Scene 1 – accessed 12 May 2015.
  205. Matthew 27:51, King James Version. Accessed 12 May 2015.
  206. THE LIFE AND OPINIONS OF TRISTRAM SHANDY, GENTLEMAN By Laurence Sterne, via Project Gutenberg.
  207. Genesis 18:24, King James Version. Accessed 12 May 2015.
  208. Andrea del Sarto by Robert Browning. Accessed 12 May 2015.
  209. Tales of a grandfather: being stories taken from Scottish history, Volume 1 by Sir Walter Scott, via Google Books. Accessed 12 May 2015.
  210. "Chapter 12: Alice's Evidence" from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll. Accessed 22 May 2015.
  211. 211.0 211.1 211.2 Job 7:10, King James Version. Accessed 22 May 2015.
  212. Psalm 22:17, King James Version. Accessed 22 May 2015.
  213. Love Calls Us to the Things of This World Related Poem Content Details by Richard Wilbur. Accessed 29 November 2016.
  214. Original line in Caswall's translation: "Pleasant coolness in the heat; Solace in the midst of woe."
  215. Revelation 13:18, King James Version. Accessed 29 November 2016.
  216. Hebrews 13:2, King James Version. Accessed 19 April 2015.
  217. Tiomnadh Nuadh ar Tighearna agus ar Slanuigh-Fhir Iosa Criosd – Litir an Abstoil Phoil chum nan Eabhruidheach (Hebrews 13:2 in Scottish Gaelic): "Na dearmadaibh aoidheachd a thoirt do choigrich; oir leis a so thug dream àraidh aoidheachd do ainglibh gun fhios doibh."
  218. From Latin cura animarum
  219. Leaves of Grass, Book IV Children of Adam: I Sing the Body Electric via Wikisource. Accessed 14 October 2015.
  220. "The expression of the face balks account,
    But the expression of a well-made man appears not only in his face,
    It is in his limbs and joints also, it is curiously in the joints of
         his hips and wrists,
    It is in his walk, the carriage of his neck, the flex of his waist
         and knees, dress does not hide him,
    The strong sweet quality he has strikes through the cotton and broadcloth,
    To see him pass conveys as much as the best poem, perhaps more,
    You linger to see his back, and the back of his neck and shoulder-side."
  221. Psalm 39:13, King James Version. Accessed 29 November 2016.
  222. Macbeth, Act II, scene 2, line 48
  223. "Star of the Evening." The UT Sheet Music Collection. Accessed 29 November 2016.
  224. The original line in Sayles' song is "Star of the evening, beautiful star." The lyric was parodied in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
  225. "Beannachadh Seilg (Hunting Blessing)": Labour. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 29 June 2015.
  226. Jeremiah 9:2, King James Version. Accessed 29 November 2016.
  227. Marianne Moore (ed. Linda Leavell). "Silence." |"Silence." Observations. 2016. Accessed 29 November 2016.
  228. "Comharrachadh (Marking the Lambs)": Labour. Carmina Gadelica, via The Internet Archive. Accessed 5 January 2016.
  229. XIII. Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature. Essays, Civil and Moral. Accessed 14 August 2015.
  230. Act III, scene 1, lines 96-97 – accessed 14 August 2015.
  231. Actual lines from the play: No, 'tis not so deep as a well, nor so wide as a church door; but 'tis enough,'twill serve.
  232. Job 39:19-25, King James Version. Accessed 21 August 2015.
  233. Book of Common Prayer (1662) – accessed 28 August 2015.
  234. Passages included in Brotherhood:
    "not to be used for any who die excommunicate, or who have laid violent hands upon themselves."
    "I AM the resurrection and the life, saith the Lord: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die."
  235. Psalm 130: 1-7, King James Version. Accessed 28 August 2015.
  236. Out of the deep have I called unto Thee, O Lord – accessed 28 August 2015.
  237. The Burial of the Dead Rite One – accessed 28 August 2015.
  238. Histoire de la Dernière Guerre de Bohème via Google Books – accessed 28 August 2015.
  239. Henry Fielding, William Ernest Henley. "Articles in the Champion." |"Articles in the Champion." The Complete Works of Henry Fielding, Esq: Miscellaneous writings, v.1-3. 1902. Accessed 6 September 2016.
  240. Lord John notes that the phrase appeared in one of Fielding's recent novels; however, the line first appeared in the Champion, a newspaper edited by Fielding from 1739 to 1741.
  241. A new abridgement of the law via Internet Archive. Accessed 1 September 2015.
  242. As written in Catullus' poem: atque in perpetuum frater ave atque vale – And forever, brother, hail and farewell.
  243. Matthew 5:6, King James Version. Accessed 9 September 2015.
  244. Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, lines 33-36 – accessed 9 September 2015.
  245. Manon Lescaut, full text English translation. Accessed 15 September 2015.
  246. The Mourning Bride, Act I, Scene 1 – accessed 16 September 2015.
  247. Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Book 3.18 – accessed 17 September 2015.
  248. The Gentleman Instructed, in the Conduct of a Virtuous and Happy Life By William Darrell – accessed 18 September 2015.
  249. An Essay Concerning the Nature of Aliments by John Arbuthnot, via Google Books. Accessed 18 September 2015.
  250. Hamlet, Act 1, scene 5, line 108 – accessed 18 September 2015.
  251. Catullus 3 – accessed 22 September 2015.
  252. Proverbs 28:1, King James Version. Accessed 22 September 2015.
  253. The Iliad of Homer translated by Alexander Pope. Accessed 18 September 2015.
  254. The Frog and mouse, or The frog he would a wooing go – accessed 22 September 2015.
  255. Songs compleat, pleasant and divertive, set to musick (1719). Accessed 22 September 2015.
  256. The words used here combine the lyrics laid out in Thomas Ravenscroft's song collection Melismata with those used in Clouds of Witness (1926) by Dorothy L. Sayers. The traditional line goes, "...and such a leman [sweetheart]," while Sayers uses "friend."

Start a Discussion Discussions about Literary References

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.