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Chapter Source Reference
1 Bible Joshua 6:26[1]
Frank quotes the verse while explaining to Claire the practice of burying a sacrifice under a new foundation: "He shall lay the foundations thereof in his firstborn and in his youngest son shall he set up the gates of it."
Genesis 19:26[2]
Claire likens herself to Lot's wife while Frank hugs her, trying to make amends.
William Shakespeare The Merchant of Venice, Act IV, scene 1 (ca. 1600)[3]
Claire quotes the line as she forgives Frank for his accusation: "The quality of mercy is not strain'd, / It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven..."
2 Cameron Unknown title
Reverend Wakefield goes to check in "Cameron" to verify if the Duke of Sandringham was a Jacobite.
Donald Donn / William Mackay "Tomorrow I shall be on a hill, without a head" (poem)[4]
Frank recites a few lines of Donald Donn's poetry to Claire: "Tomorrow I shall be on a hill, without a head. / Have you no compassion on my sorrowful maiden, / My Mary, the fair and tender-eyed?"[5][6]
3 Bible 1 Corinthians 14:34[7]
A man in the MacKenzie party starts to recite the verse to admonish Claire for her vulgar language: "Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak."
6 Robert Burns (attributed) "Selkirk Grace"[8]
Hamish says grace: "Some hae meat that canna eat, / And some could eat that want it; / We hae meat, and we can eat, / And so may God be thankit."
7 William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act III, scene 4, line 57 (ca. 1599)[9]
Claire thinks of the line when she meets Auld Alec, who has one eye: "An eye like Mars, to threaten and command ..."
8 Nursery rhyme Old King Cole (1708)
Claire recites a few lines of the poem while waiting for Gwyllyn the Bard to begin playing: "Oh, he called for his pipe, and he called for his bowl, and he called for his fiddlers three."
15 Bible Genesis 27:11[10]
Claire notes the difference between Jamie's hairy hands and Frank's smooth ones: "For Jacob's skin was smooth, while his brother Esau was a hairy man."[11]
Geoffrey Chaucer The Wife of Bath's Tale from The Canterbury Tales
(published 1478)
Claire feels like the Wife of Bath while explaining the finer points of lovemaking to Jamie in their marriage bed.
16 Alexander Carmichael (editor) (poem fragment)[12]
from the Carmina Gadelica, vol. II (1900)
Jamie recites a poem from the Isles to Claire: "Thou daughter of the kingdom of the regions of the light, / On the night that thy wedding is on us..."
20 Catullus / trans. Richard Crashaw Catullus 5 (ca. 84 – 54 BC)[13]
Jamie translates the bit of poetry, which Hugh Munro had written on a piece of paper and wrapped around a chunk of amber: "Da mi basia mille..."
22 Bible 1 Corinthians 7:9[14]
Jamie recalls the verse to Claire as he explains his involvement with Laoghaire: "...for it is better to marry than to burn."
23 William Shakespeare Hamlet, Act I, scene 5, line 20 (ca. 1599)[15]
Claire wakens suddenly, blurting "Horrocks!", which startles Jamie out of sleep and at the ready with his dirk. Claire remarks that he looks like a "fretful porpentine".
24 MacBeth, Act IV, scene 1, line 44 (ca. 1606)[16]
Chapter title: By the Pricking of My Thumbs
25 Bible Colossians 3:12[17]
Geilie quotes the passage when talking to Claire in the thieves' hole about Colum MacKenzie: "Bowels of mercy and compassion, is it?"[18]
Habakkuk 3:5[19]
Father Bain denounces Claire during the witch trial, equipped with inflammatory verse: "Before him went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at his feet."
Proverbs 2:16-18[20]
Father Bain continues his denunciation: "To deliver thee from the strange woman, even from the stranger which flattereth with her words... For her house inclineth unto death, and her paths unto the dead."
Exodus 22:18[21]
Father Bain makes his closing argument: "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live."
Matter of Britain Arthurian legend
Claire calls the stones on Craigh na Dun "Merlin's stones" to emphasize the fantastical nature of her very real situation.
26 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902)
Claire's first impression of a large dog that greets her and Jamie at Lallybroch calls to mind that tale of a legendary hellish hound.
Homer Odyssey (8th century BC)
Claire makes a remark about Odysseus being recognized by his dog upon returning from the Trojan War. After greeting his own dogs, Jamie continues, quoting in Greek, "In which Odysseus returns to his home, disguised as a beggar..." and makes a comment about dealing with Penelope and her suitors.
Norman Macleod Caraid nan Gaidheal = The friend of the Gael : a choice selection of Gaelic writings
Jamie quotes a few lines of poetry to Claire about the legendary Fingal and his dogs: "Thus Fingal chose his hounds: / Eye like sloe, ear like leaf, / Chest like horse, hough like sickle / And the tail joint far from the head."[22] It is also notable that Jamie's dog, Bran, is named for the legendary Fingal's hound, who is considered a hero in his own right.
38 Herodotus Various Works
Father Anselm uses the library at the Abbey of Ste. Anne de Beaupré to work on translating the works of Herodotus.[23]
Tacitus Unidentified Book
Jamie reads a book by Tacitus while at the Abbey of Ste. Anne de Beaupré.
39 Bible 1 Samuel 5:9[24]
Claire peruses the Bible in search of guidance: "...and he smote them with emerods, and they were very sore."
Psalms 22:6, 22:14, 22:19-20[25]
Claire peruses the Bible in search of guidance: "But I am a worm, and no man... I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint: my heart is like wax; it is melted in the midst of my bowels... But be not thou far from me, O Lord: O my strength, haste thee to help me. Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog."
Job 14:22,[26] 33:19-25[27]
Claire chooses to consult the Book of Job, Jamie's favorite: "But his flesh upon him shall have pain, and his soul within him shall mourn... He is chastened also with pain upon his bed, and the multitude of his bones with strong pain... His flesh is consumed away, that it cannot be seen; and his bones that were not seen stick out. Yea, his soul draweth near unto the grave, and his life to the destroyers. If there be a messenger with him, an interpreter, one among a thousand, to shew unto man his uprightness: Then he is gracious unto him, and saith, Deliver him from going down to the pit: I have found a ransom. His flesh shall be fresher than a child's: he shall return to the days of his youth."

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